Diamonds were first discovered in India in the Deccan Plateau about 600 BCE. For centuries the Golconda mines were the only source of diamonds on the planet. Diamonds symbolised brilliancy, dignity, wealth and beauty. The most famous diamonds were mined there – such as the Hope, a blue 44.5 carat diamond, the 105.6-carat Koh-i-noor (Mountain of Light) and the Orloff, weighing 189.6 carats. Today, the biggest diamond producers are Botswana, Russia and Canada.
Pure diamonds appear colourless, perfectly structured and it is the hardest of all natural minerals. They are the only precious stones that consist of a single element of carbon. The qualities that make a diamond rare include exceptional light reflection property, unadulterated composition and it is known as the hardest stone available.
Diamonds were created millions of years ago deep within the earth’s crust. The sparkle of a diamond is reflected with a skilfully crafted cut which emphasises the fire and brilliance of a diamond. To enhance the stone, the diamond cutter places the facets and angles to act as light-dispersing mirrors in exact geometric relation to one another.
Diamonds are found in a hue of varied colours from white diamonds to slightly yellow and a light brown tinge. White diamonds are considered highly valuable with high-end pricing. Fancy coloured diamonds are extremely rare due to their intense colours like intense yellow, pink, green, black and blue. These wonderful hues are created due to the composition of nitrogen and hydrogen.
Diamonds completely free from internal flaws, or inclusions, are very rare and highly-prized. The clarity is graded based on the number, location, size and type of inclusions in a diamond.
A “carat” is the gemologist’s standard measure of a diamond’s weight (one metric gram equals 5 carats). Since larger diamonds are rarer than smaller diamonds, diamond value tends to rise exponentially with carat weight.
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